Warnings & Instructions

A warning is a method of communication intended to provide people with safety and precautionary information. Warnings come in a variety of formats. The work of a safety and human factors professional involves evaluating and assessing the format and content of existing warnings. Also, it may be necessary to test the effectiveness of certain warnings. Such work draws on our specialized knowledge of the body of warnings research and understanding of human information-processing in cognition.

A partial list of example settings or product instructions and warnings that were subjected to analysis:

  • Construction sites
  • Slippery conditions
  • Industrial equipment
  • Industrial chemicals
  • Power tools
  • Buildings
  • Roadways
  • Bicycles
  • Helmets
  • Pools
  • Work zones
  • Powered wheelchairs
  • Heaters
  • Motorcycles
  • Snowmobiles


Joe Cohen (partial list)

  • Bachelor of Arts (BA), Psychology (1997), University of California, Riverside
  • Master of Arts (MA), Psychology, Human Factors and Applied-Experimental option (2000), California State University, Northridge
  • Master of Science (MS), Industrial-Organizational Psychology (2005), Alliant International University, San Diego
  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Industrial-Organizational Psychology, industrial emphasis track (2009), Alliant International University, San Diego
  • Certified Human Factors Professional, Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics
  • Certified Hazard Control Manager, International Board for Certification Services Management
  • Certified XL Tribometrist, Excel Tribometers, LLC
  • Member, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Safety Technical Group, Forensics Professional Technical Group
  • Member, American Society of Safety Professionals
  • Member, ASTM International
  • Member, International Code Council
  • Associate Editor, Ergonomics in Design, Sage Publications (2014-2018)

Mailing Address

Error Analysis, Inc.
5173 Waring Road, Suite 157
San Diego, CA 92120-2705


Office Location (No Mail)

Grossmont Professional Building
9001 Grossmont Boulevard, Suite 603
La Mesa, CA 91941


(Direct all inquiries and mail to the Waring Road address)