Trip & Fall

Physically, the start of a trip and fall sequence occurs when a pedestrian’s striding foot is arrested mid-swing. A fall occurs if balance is not recovered. Using one’s arms and/or hands to break a trip and fall is a common response. Trip and fall incidents therefore can be life changing. They are often caused by rigid, low-lying objects. Expectancy for trip hazards may be low in certain settings. Low lighting or changes in lighting may further degrade the ability to detect trip hazards, especially by older adults.  

Examples of issues we address pertaining to such incidents:
Walkway surfaces
Exterior walkways
Walway changes in level
Walking surface hardware
Mats, runners, and carpets
Wheel stops and speed bumps
Visual and perceptial cues
Coefficient of friction
Warnings and markings
A partial list of example settings:

  • Universities and colleges
  • Apartments
  • Condominiums
  • Hotels and resorts
  • Amusement parks
  • Casinos
  • Restaurants
  • Stadiums and arenas
  • Grocery stores
  • Public facilities (e.g., post office)
  • Offices
  • Shopping malls


Joe Cohen (partial list)

  • Bachelor of Arts (BA), Psychology (1997), University of California, Riverside
  • Master of Arts (MA), Psychology, Human Factors and Applied-Experimental option (2000), California State University, Northridge
  • Master of Science (MS), Industrial-Organizational Psychology (2005), Alliant International University, San Diego
  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Industrial-Organizational Psychology, industrial emphasis track (2009), Alliant International University, San Diego
  • Certified Human Factors Professional, Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics
  • Certified Hazard Control Manager, International Board for Certification Services Management
  • Certified XL Tribometrist, Excel Tribometers, LLC
  • Member, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Safety Technical Group, Forensics Professional Technical Group
  • Member, American Society of Safety Professionals
  • Member, ASTM International
  • Member, International Code Council
  • Associate Editor, Ergonomics in Design, Sage Publications (2014-2018)

Mailing Address

Error Analysis, Inc.
5173 Waring Road, Suite 157
San Diego, CA 92120-2705


Office Location (No Mail)

Grossmont Professional Building
9001 Grossmont Boulevard, Suite 603
La Mesa, CA 91941


(Direct all inquiries and mail to the Waring Road address)